Memory laws are government actions designed to guide their citizens’ interpretation of history. The laws assert a mandatory viewpoint of historical events and forbids any conflicting interpretation of the same historical event. We have criticized memory laws for being an enemy to free speech. We also know memory laws as government censorship.

In 1985, West Germany passed a memory law that would criminalize anyone who teaches, writes or speaks about Holocaust denial. Other countries soon followed suit and passed similar laws banning the denial of other historical horrors. …


It seems so simple, superior military might should crush ideology. If you look at the real world results of this line of thinking, you can see it’s absolutely not true, and is a mistake the United States keeps repeating. I do not mean this article to disparage U.S. military people past and current, but to examine the political decision making that puts them in no-win situations.

Vietnam War:

Though the Vietnam war had many atrocities, were going to examine the decision making made throughout the war period.

After World War II, the United States started a foreign policy known as…


After the Civil War, the U.S. government passed three Constitutional amendments in succession, the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments. The 13th abolished slavery, the 14th gave African Americans equal protection under Federal law and the 15th gave African American men the right to vote.

The losing forces on the other side of the Civil War didn’t like any of these amendments, but they especially didn’t like the 15th Amendment. In this time frame of the late 1800s, African Americans were republicans mainly because former President Abraham Lincoln was a republican who helped end slavery. Southern white democrats had to concoct…


Who didn’t love the circus as a kid? The atmosphere, the animals, all the cool acts and tricks and the peanuts. The circus was always an event I looked forward to attending. Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey were the biggest Circus act around and the one with the largest attractions. What I didn’t know as a kid were the many issues of animal cruelty and abuse that circuses accrued over the years. I also didn’t know how the circus came to gain many of its freak show acts in its early years. One act in particular shows how low…


In 1887, the U.S. Congress passed the Dawes Act (named after Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts). The law regulated land rights on tribal territories in the United States. It converted the Native American traditional system of communal land ownership into the private property land ownership we are all familiar with today.

Before it could convert the land into private property, the government had to determine which Native Americans were eligible for property allotments. For this to happen, the U.S. government had to make a criterion of what makes a person Native American and therefore eligible. The U.S. …


In the aftermath of World War I, Americans were very leery of getting involved in another World War. When war began again in Europe in September 1939, most Americans demanded neutrality regarding the war. The America First Committee was established on September 4, 1940, in response to the neutrality efforts. A group of Yale law students established the committee including; R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., future U.S. President Gerald Ford, Sargent Shriver, and future Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart.

Prominent business people and politicians agreed with the committees cause and soon joined on. Senators Burton K. Wheeler, David I. Walsh and…


As another 100 + degree weekend approaches here in California, thoughts of what to wear to stay cool circulates in my mind. A summer fashion staple of some men is the ribbed tank top a.k.a. the “wife beater” or “beater”. On those scorching hot days, some men wear a “beater,” shorts and some clean white sneakers and are quite fashionable. If a person is really about that N.Y.C. life, they would swap in Timberlands for the sneakers and still be on point.

I first learned of the term “beater” in my teenage years and instantly thought; why is the shirt…


During the Revolutionary War, the U.S. Congress met and did business at the Pennsylvania State House a.k.a. Independence Hall in Philadelphia. The building is better known as the building where the Declaration of Independence and Consitution was debated and signed at. Under the Articles of Confederation, which was the supreme law at the time (the U.S. Consitution was not yet passed), Congress did not have direct control over the military, except in times of war. The country was reliant on state militias to enforce laws and keep order.

On June 17, 1783, Congress received a message from soldiers of the…


On March 23, 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker left the port of Valdez, Alaska, bound for Long Beach, California. The ship contained 53 million gallons of crude oil. Shortly after midnight, the ship struck the Bligh Reef, a well-known navigation hazard in Alaska’s Prince William Sound.

The collision tore apart the ship’s hull and caused 11 million gallons of crude oil to spill into the water.

The factors for the crash were:

1. Exxon failed to provide a rested and sufficient crew for the ship. Authorities found this was a widespread practice throughout the industry.

2. The shipmate steering…


In the 1830s, 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida. Their ancestors cultivated and occupied the land for generations.

White Americans feared and resented the Native Americans they encountered. Though the Native Americans occupied the land first, to the whites they were aliens who occupied land they wanted. Government officials believed that the best way to “deal” with the Native Americans was to “civilize” them. The goal of these efforts was to make the Native Americas as white as possible by converting them to Christianity, teaching them to speak…

marlon mosley

recovering Lawyer, History buff who wants to share my knowledge with the world . To teach them lessons from our past. see all of the stories on www.mwmblog.com

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